Thursday, February 26, 2009

ASTANGA ATURVEDA (eight branches of Ayurvetla)

Kya, BãLa, Graht, Ordhvaiiga, Saiya, DamWa,Jar and Va—are the eight branches (of Ayurveda) in whicbtreatment (of diseases) is embodied (described)—(5)
Notes --Kayac kitsA branch deals with the treatment of diseases arising ftoxn d -a ders of digestive activity, known in modern parlance as Inner Mediciie; Bãla cikitã is treatment of diseases of children (paediatrics), Graha cikisã means treatment of diseases arising from possession by evil spit its, athogenic micro.organisns etc. and deals mainly with mental diseases (psychiatry). Urdhvafiga cikitsã deals whh treatment of disc. ases of the head inclusive of the eyes (ophthalmology ), ears (otology), nose ( rhinology), throat ( laryngology) and teeth ( dentistry).
alya cikitsã also known as Jastra cikitsd deals with treatment of requiring the use of knife (surgery). Dam str5. cikiisã is treatment of diseases due to poison (toxicology). Jarä cikitsã also known as RasAyana chicitsa deals with treatment of diseases of old age (gerientology, geriatrics). Va cikitsA deals with treatment of diseases like impotence, sterility etc. and making man sexually strong by the use aphcodisiacs (verification).
From those treatises which are very eloborate (hence difficult to study ), only the essence has been collected and this treatise—At.ânga hdaya—prepared which is niether too succinct nor too eloborate.

CONCEPT OF KALA/Time in Ayurveda


Kala is ‘Bagavan’ having neither a beginning nor an
end. Everything in this universe is constantly undergoing changes. The change from an earlier condition to its succeeding condition is called Kala or in other words ‘parinama’. Everything in
this cosmos starting from the planets down to the minutest substance, undergoing changes or transformations follows some orderliness which can be recognized. The changes in the atmosphere which is called ‘seasons’ follow a definite order, so also the physical body of all living beings. These changes are inexorable goes on silently without break.
Kala is the cause for the birth and death of all living beings, for the disorders and excellence of the seasons,
properties of substances such as taste and potency, the disorders or excellence of strength of Dosha and the body.


It is the ultimate cause for the formation and destruction of all
things in the universe.


Based on the changes in the body and in the Doshas with the time, it is broadly divided into (Jaiva chakra)
& (Adhi Bouthika chakra).






Vata is the predominant Dosha during old age. i.e. body generally undergoes catabolic changes .Pitta is predominant during middle age and during childhood body undergoes catabolic changes i.e. Kapha predominates.


The structural and functional aspects of changes in the body elements by the consumption of food included in this group. Kapha is the predominant Dosha at the commencement of digestion of food. Pitta is the predominant Dosha during the middle stage of digestion & Vata at the last stage of digestion of food.


Kala is divided in to & based on the solar solstice.


This also called . It include SISIRA,VASANTHA & GREESHMA ‘ritus’.

According to ‘Sakha varsha’ it include Magham,Phalgunam,Cha
Ithram,Jyeashtam &Ashadam.

According to Kolla varsha’,the Malayalam calendar it include
At this time the sun will be having very hot rays.By contact with hot rays of the sun,the air also become hot & dry,both together, dry up all the moisture of the earth & thereby make the bitter,astringent & pungent tastes more active & brings about debility in human beings & Vata is the predominant Dosha and generally Vata rogas predominate
during this period.


It is also called . It include Varsha, Sarath, Hemantha ‘ritus’ and include Sravana, Badram, Aswinam, Karthika in ‘Sakha’ calendar. In Malayalam it include Chingam, Kanni, Thulam, Vrischikam, Dhanu and Makaram.

In this season sun moves towards the southward direction, the moon is powerful producing cold and the atmosphere is pleasant. Kapha & Pitta doshas become dominant at this season.


Abhaktha:- It is the use of drug separately before
consumption of food
Prag bhaktha:- It is the use of drug just prior to food.
Madhya bhakhta:- It is the use of drug in the middle meal and
diseases of alimentary tract and diseases of
Pita origin.
Adho bakta:- It is the use of the drug after the meal.
in diseases due to Vyana vayu it should
be after the morning meal.
Sabhaktha:- It is the use of drug by mixing with food.

Anthara bhaktha:- It is the use of drug at the mid day after the
break fast has digested and once again in
after noon after the digestion of mid day
Samudga:- It is the use of medicines twice,one just
before the meals and one just after the meals.
Muhurmuhu:- Use of drug frequently with or without food.
Sangrasa:- It is the taking of medicine with morsel of
Grasantara:- Taking of food after every meal.
Nisi :- Administration of drugs at night.

Tuesday, February 24, 2009


Alasaka occurs especially in those who are poor in strength and digestive capacity, who suppress the urges of the body (habitually) in them, vãta getting increased (aggravated) associates with (kapha) obstructs the movement of undigested food inside, causes it to stay like a foreign body, producing severe pain in the abdomen etc. but without vomiting arid diarrhoea, this is Alasaka.

Dos which are greatly increased getting into the vitiated and obstructed channels (by accumulation of undigested food), being unable to move inside them begin to move in other channels (unnatural) occupy the whole body making it stiff like a log of wood. This disease is called Da4akalasaka, which should be rejected .a it is quick in effect (causes death).

Persons who indulge in partakir1g incompatible foods, overeating and eating of uncooked food develop the dreaded Amadosa which is similar to poison and SO known as amavisa (food poison) which also should be refused treatment because of its similarity with poison, quickness of action (causing death) and requiring treatments of opposite nature (to one another).

Alasaka cikitsa-(treatment of alasaka)

Ama (undigested food) stagnating inside should be removed quickly after deciding the conditions of easy management, by making the person drink warm water mixed with (powder of) ugra (vácã), pandu (saindhava) and phala (madanaphala); this will produce vomiting; next sudatiori therapy, rectal suppositories prepared froi fruits which help downward movement of faces and flatus should be administered, the parts of the body which are rigid should be well fomented and then wrapped (with cloth).

Visuchika chikitsa-(treatment of chikitsa) :-

In advanced stage of chikitsa, branding by fire over the heel1 is highly beneficial, the patient should be made to fast on that day and taken care of as the One who has undergone purgation therapy.

Ama dosa chikitsa -(management of amadosa )

The patient of indigestion though having severe abdominal pain should not take pain-killing drugs; the agni (digestive fire) which is associated with ama (undigested food, improperly processed metabolites) will not be able to digest the dosas, drugs and food; the severe troubles arising from these (three) will soon kill the patient.

After the food is found digested, if stiffness and heaviness of the abdomen persisting, then the medicines should be administered to cook the residue of the dosas and to stimulate the agni (digestive activity).

Diseases produced by ama (undigested food) become relieved by apatarpana (non-nourishment); three khids of it (non-nourishment) appropriate to the three dosas should be adopted after careful consideratioii (of all aspects).

If it (ama) is little, only langhana (fasting) will be suitable, if it is moderate lagbana (fasting) and pcana (digestive drugs) are needed; if it is great (more), then odhana ( purificatory therapies) is necessary; for these will expel out the malAs (doas, ama etc.) from their very roots.

Even the other diseases should be treated by adopting treatments which are opposite of their causative factors (hetu viparyaya). If, however, the diseases reoccur (or persist for long time) then the hetu viparaya (therapies which are opposite cause) should be given up and vyadhi viparyaya cikitsä (elements which are opposite of the specific disease should be adopted suitably.

Or Tadarthakãri cikitsä (therapies which, though not actually opposite of either the cause or the diseases still produce the desired result) should be adopted; when the dosãs have become ripe (return to normal and devoid of ama) and the digestive activity augmented, then oil-bath, drinking of oil (oleation therapies) and enema therapy, etc. should be administered appropriately.

Anupana-(after-drink) -

As Anupãna (after-drink) cold Water is ideal after meals containing It prepared from yava (barley) and godhuma (wheat), so also after consuming dadhi (yoghurt/ curds), wine, poison and honey. Warm Water is ideal after foods which are starchy, mastu (whey), takra (diluted buttermilk) and amlakajika (fermented gruel) are ideal; after dishes prepared from vegetables and mudga and other legumes): Surã (beer) is good to make lean persons shout, and honey water to make stout persons lean; juice of meat is good for the emaciated, wines are ideal after a meal of meat and to those who have poor digestive capacity; milk is best suited just as nectar for those who are debilitated by diseases, medicines (and therapies), walking long distances, speaking, sexual intercourse, fasting, exposure to sun and such other (tiresome) activities; for the emaciated, the aged, and children.

An ideal anupäna (-after-drink) is that which has properties opposite of those of the foods but not incompatible with them; such an after-drink is always valuable.

Anupäna ( after-drink) invigorates, gives contentment, helps proper movement of food inside, stability of the body parts; loosening of hard masses of food, their proper liquefaction (moistening) and digestion.

It is not good in diseases of the organs above the shoulders, dyspnoea, cough, injury to chest (lungs), rhinitis, for those engaged in singing and speaking and in hoarseness of voice.

Drinking liquids (water etc.) should be avoided by those who are over hydrated, who are suffering from polyuria (diabetes ), diseases of the eyes and throat, and wounds (ulcers.)

All persons (both healthy and sick) should avoid speaking (oration), walking long distances and sleeping immediately after consuming liquids; exposure to sun and fire, travel in vehicles, swimming and riding on animals soon after consuming food.



To determine the arterial pressure of the given subject at rest and to note the variations with change in posture and after exercise.


Sphygmomanometer, Stethoscope.

The Sphygmomanometer consists of a cuff which is an inflatable rubber bag covered with cloth. The cuff is connected to a mercury manometer through a rubber tube. By using a hand pump provided with a valve, the cuff can be inflated or deflated. When the cuff is inflated the pressure in the mercury manometer will rise. The mercury manometer is a glass tube which is graduated from 0-300 and each division corresponds to 2 mm of Hg pressure difference. It is connected to a mercury reservoir. Ideally the width of the cuff should be about 20% more than the diameter of the limb from which blood pressure is recorded. For an average adult the cuff used is about 18 cm long and 10 cm wide.

The stethoscope is an instrument used to auscultate different sounds in the body and it consists of two ear pieces and a chest piece connected by rubber tubings. The chest piece has a bell and a diaphragm, and can select either bell or diaphragm by rotating the chest piece in either direction. The bell is being used for low pitched sounds and the diphragm is for high pitched sounds.


The blood pressure is determined using the sphygmomanometer. A rough assessment of the systolic presssure is made by the palpatory method. Then a more accurate assessment is made by the auscultatory method.

Palpatory method:

Apply the cuff of the sphygmomanometer around the arm of the subject, an inch above the elbow joint, leaving the cubital fossa exposed. Feel for the radial pulse at the wrist. Inflate the cuff till the radial pulse disappears. Raise the pressure still further by 20 to 30 mm of Hg. Then slowly release the pressure and note the reading in the manometer when the pulse reappears. This gives an idea about the systolic pressure.


1. The value obtained is about 5 to 10mm of Hg lower than the actual systolic pressure.

2. The diastolic pressure cannot be measured using this method.

Ausculatatory method:

Feel for the brachial pulse in the cubital fossa. Apply the diaphragm of the stethoscope firmly over this point. First determine the systolic pressure by palpatory method. Inflate the cuff about 40mm of Hg above this level. Slowly deflate the cuff. Due to the turbulent flow of blood through the partly collapsed artery, a series of sounds are heard. To begin with, the sound is sharp tapping which becomes louder, then gets muffled and finally diappears. The pressure at which sounds appear is taken as systolic pressure and the pressure at which they completely disappear is taken as the diastolic pressure. The value is expressed as systolic pressure over diastolic pressure.

Eg: 120/80 mm of Hg.

First check the blood pressure in the recumbent posture and then in the erect posture. Then determine the blood pressure after doing moderate exercise.


Blood pressure is defined as the lateral pressure exerted by the column of blood on the walls of the containing vessel. The maximum pressure exerted during systole is the systolic pressure and the minimum pressure exerted during a cardiac cycle and which exists throughout the cycle is the diastolic pressure. The normal systolic pressure in the healthy young adult ranges from 100 to 140 mm of Hg and the distolic pressure ranged from 60 to 90mm of Hg. The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure is called pulse pressure. Normal value ranges between 30 and 60mm of Hg. The mean arterial blood pressure is the average pressure throughout the cardiac cycle. As the duration of systole is shorter than diastole the mean arterial pressure is taken as diastolic pressure plus 1/3 pluse pressure.



Ascites is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.In medicine (gastroenterology), ascites is an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity. Although most commonly due to cirrhosis and severe liver disease, its presence can portend other significant medical problems. Typically described in terms of transudate (low protein concentration) and exudate (high protein), the serum-ascites albumin gradient (SAAG) is probably a better discriminate.

In Ayurveda, there have a similar condition to ascites named Udara.

Synonyms and related keywords

Fluid collection, fluid accumulation, fluid retention, distended abdomen, portal hypertension, hypoalbuminemia, hepatic congestion, congestive heart failure, constrictive pericarditis, tricuspid insufficiency, Budd-Chiari syndrome, liver disease, cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, fulminant hepatic failure, massive hepatic metastases, nephrotic syndrome, protein-losing enteropathy, severe malnutrition, anasarca, chylous ascites, pancreatic ascites, bile ascites, nephrogenic ascites, urine ascites, ovarian disease, bacterial peritonitis, tuberculous peritonitis, fungal peritonitis, HIV-associated peritonitis, malignancy, peritoneal carcinomatosis, primary mesothelioma, pseudomyxoma peritonei, hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC, familial Mediterranean fever, vasculitis, granulomatous peritonitis, eosinophilic peritonitis, alcohol use, chronic viral hepatitis, jaundice, intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, alcoholic liver disease, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, gastrointestinal cancer, malignant ascites, cirrhotic ascites, nephrotic ascites, palmar erythema, spider angiomas, puddle sign, Sister Mary Joseph nodule, gastric malignancy, pancreatic malignancy, hepatic primary malignancy, left-sided supraclavicular node, Virchow node, anasarca


The word ascites is of Greek origin (askos) and means bag or sac. Ascites describes the condition of pathologic fluid accumulation within the abdominal cavity. Healthy men have little or no intraperitoneal fluid, but women may normally have as much as 20 mL depending on the phase of the menstrual cycle. This article focuses only on ascites associated with cirrhosis.


The accumulation of ascitic fluid represents a state of total-body sodium and water excess, but the event that initiates the unbalance is unclear. Three theories of ascites formation have been proposed.

The underfilling theory suggests that the primary abnormality is inappropriate sequestration of fluid within the splanchnic vascular bed due to portal hypertension and a consequent decrease in effective circulating blood volume. This activates the plasma renin, aldosterone, and sympathetic nervous system, resulting in renal sodium and water retention.

The overflow theory suggests that the primary abnormality is inappropriate renal retention of sodium and water in the absence of volume depletion. This theory was developed in accordance with the observation that patients with cirrhosis have intravascular hypervolemia rather than hypovolemia.

The most recent theory, the peripheral arterial vasodilation hypothesis, includes components of both of the other theories. It suggests that portal hypertension leads to vasodilation, which causes decreased effective arterial blood volume. As the natural history of the disease progresses, neurohumoral excitation increases, more renal sodium is retained, and plasma volume expands. This leads to overflow of fluid into the peritoneal cavity. According to the vasodilation theory, the underfilling theory is proposed to be operative early and the overflow theory is proposed to be operative late in the natural history of cirrhosis.

Although the sequence of events that occurs between the development of portal hypertension and renal sodium retention is not entirely clear, portal hypertension apparently leads to an increase in nitric oxide levels. Nitric oxide mediates splanchnic and peripheral vasodilation. Patients with ascites have greater hepatic artery nitric oxide synthase activity compared to patients without ascites.

Ajirna bkedas-(different kinds of indigestion) :-

From kapha (increased) arises ãmajirna (a kind of Indigestion) characterized with swelling of the eyes (socket) and cheeks, similar to those which come up immediately after meals, excess salivation, nausea and feeling of heavyness of the body.

Vithabdhäjiriia (another kind of indigestion) arises from (increased anila väta) and is characterized by pain in the abdomen, constipation flatulence and debility.

Vidaghajirna (another kind of indigestion) arises from (increased) pitta and has thirsts fainting, giddiness, sour belching and burning sensation inside as its symptoms.

Ajirna cikitsa-(treatment of indigestion)

For amajiriia, Iafghana ( fasting) should be done; for viabdha, swedana (sudation therapy) should be done in greater measure; for vidagdha, vamana (emesis therapy) should be done, or any therapy appropriate tothe stage of the disease can be done


(another kind of indigestion) occurs due to profound accumulation of ama inside the channels, it is produced jointly by kapha and vata and has all the symptoms of ama; its treatment also is similar to it (that of ama).

Lack of enthusiasm (in all activities), discomfort in the region of the) heart inspite of pure beichings are the features of rasaesajiriia (another kind of indigestion). Such a person should sleep for some time during day without eating anything.

Patients of indigestion (of any type) should sleep during day without taking any food, later, when be develops hunger he should eat little quantity of easily digestible food.

Ajirna samanya laksana

(general symptoms of indigestion) :- Non-elimination or excess of elimination (of faces urine and dosas exhaustion, inactivity of vãta, distension of the abdomen, feeling of heavyness and giddiness are the general symptoms of Ajirna (indigestion).

Ajirna anyakarani-(other causes of indigestion) :-

(partaking of) large quantity of food, is not the onLy cause for production of ama doa; foods which are disliked, which cause flatulence, which are over-cooked or uncooked, which are not easily digestible, which are dry (powdery), very cold, dirty (contaminated) which cause burning sensation during digestion, which are dried up or soaked in more water, do not undergo proper digestion; so also the food partaken by persons afflicted with grief, anger, hunger etc.

Dustajirna-(bad kinds of diet) :-

Consuming suitable and unsuitable foods mixed together is known as Samaana, Consuming large quantity of good even before the previous meal is digested constitutes Adhyaana, consuming less or more quantity at improper time is Visamana,-all these three either cause death or give rise to dreaded diseases.

Aharavidhi-(regimen of diet) :-

Food should be consumed at the proper time1 it should be the accustomed, clean, suited to health, unctuous, hot and easily digestible; partaken with due attention, should contain all the six tastes with predominance of sweet taste, partaken neither very quick nor very slow; after taking bath, good hunger, sitting in solitude, after washing the feet, hands and face, after satisfying the pets (manes), gods, guests children, preceptors and even the dependents maintained in the house (such as servants horses and other animals for receiving service, parrots and other pets etc.), after carefully considering one’s own ( constitution, likes and dislikes, ternary etc. ), ’without scolding abusing the food, without too much of talk; should partake more of liquid food, that which is liked, in the company of the liked persons, and served by those who are clean and faithful to him.

Food which is contaminated with grass, hairs etc; warmed again, which consists more of vegetables and undesirable grains, which is very hot and very a1ty should be rejected.

Kilata ( inspected milk), dadhi (voghurt, curds), kücikä (solid portion of curds), kãra ( alkalies), sukta (fermented gruel), ama mülaka (uncooked radish), meat of animals which are emaciated, dry meat, meat of the boar, sheep, cow, fish and buffalo, nnäa, nipãva; ãlüka, bisa, pia (powdery, starchy), germinated grains, dried vegetables, yavaka (small barley), phanita (half cooked molasses)-these should not be consumed habitually.

Sail (rice), godhuma ( wheat ), yava (barley), saika (rice maturing in sixty days), jngala (meat of ar1iLnals of desert like lands), sunisaiuiaka, jivanti, bãla mulaka, pathya, ãmalaka, mridwika, paoli, mudga, arkar (sugar), ghrta (butter fat), divyodaka (rain water or pure water), kira (milk), koudra .( honey), daçlima and sainldhava (salt) can be consumed habitually.

Triphala along with honey and ghee (butter fat) should be consumed at nights daily for strengthening of eye sight. Any other things which is good for promoting/maintaining health and dispelling/ cure of diseases can also be consumed habitually.

Foods which are not easily digestible, which are unctuous (fatty), sweet, slow and hard such as bisa, iksu, moca, coca amra, modaka (sweet meat ball), sutkârika (sweet dish) etc., should be consumed at the commencement of the meal; foods of opposite qualities, at the end of the meal, and those which are predominantly sour and salt, in the middle of the meal.

Two parts of the stomach (half of its capacity) should be filled with solid foods, one part by liquids and the remaining one part should be kept vacant for accommodating air etc.

Botanical Name—Aegel marmelos

Scientific classification

Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Aegle
Species: A. marmelos

Bilva is a fruit-bearing tree indigenous to dry forests on hills and plains of central and southern India, Myanmar, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. It is cultivated throughout India, as well as in Sri Lanka, northern Malaya, Java and in the Philippines. It is also popularly known as Bilva, Bilwa, Bel, or Beli fruit, Bengal quince, stone apple, and wood apple. The tree, which is the only species in the genus Aegle, grows up to 18 meters tall .
Bilva is extensively described and used in the Vedic literature. Bilva Mani dhãrana is considered as Duhsvapan nãana, Raksoghna, Rasayana, Prajãsthapana, Visghna etc. It is also used for rituals, marriages etc. Its cosmetic properties were also documented by the ancient texts.
Bilva is a very good source of protein which is 5.12 per cent of the edible portion. Fresh half-ripe Bilva fruit is mildly astringent and is used for dysentery and diarrhea. The pulp may be eaten or the decoction administered. Bilva is said to cure without creating any tendency to constipation. Bilva leaves, fruits and root can be used as tonic and coolant with antibiotic properties
This tree is a larval foodplant for the following two Indian Swallowtail butterflies, the Lime Butterfly Papilio demoleus and the Common Mormon Papilio polytes.

Bilva is considered to be the best Saiigrahika and Dipaniya drug being vãta kapha hara (C.S.Su.25). Bilva Patra is however vãtahara only (C.S.S.27). Suruta quoted Bilva as Rasãyana (S.S.Ci.27). Bilva is also called Siva Druma (Lord Siva’s favourite tree) is held sacred by Hindus, the leaves being offered in prayers to iva & Pãrvati. As Chopra aptly puts it, “No drug has been longer better known, more appreciated by the inhabitants of India than bael fruits”. Different parts of the tree are used in ancient medicine viz, root (vãtakaraj; stem (Hridroga hara or Jvara hara), leaves (Madhumeha hara), Apakva phala (sangrahi) and pakva phala (laxative).

Botanical Description — It is a medium to fairly large sized deciduous and glabrous tree up to 6-7.5 m high and 90-120 cm in girth. Branches armed with straight sharp, axillary 2.5 cm long spines. Bark soft, corky, light grey.
Leaves alternate, trifoliate, occasionally digitately five foliate. Leaflets ovate or ovate Ianceolate, crenate, acuminate, lateral sessile, terminal long petioled.
Flowers large, greenish white, sweet scented in short axillary panicles.
Fruits glabose, grey or yellow, rind woody. Seeds-numerous, oblong, compressed, em-bedded in sacs covered with thick orange coloured sweet pulp. Fruit 2 1/2 to 3 1/4 inches in diameter, globular or ovoid in shape, colour greyish brown, outside surface hard and nearly smooth. Rind about 1/8 inch thick and adherent to a light red pulp, in which are ten to fifteen cells, each containing several woolly seeds. It has a faint aromatic odour and mucilagenous taste

Aganttu roga(traumatic diseases) :—

Those diseases produced by bhãta (evil spirits, bacteria, parasites, insects and other living Lings), via (poisons), air (hurricane, cyclone), agni (fire, electricity, radiation etc.) kata (injury, wounds etc.), bhanga (fracture of bones) etc., as also those due to rãga (desire, lust), dvesa (hatred), bhaya (fear) etc. are all known as Aganiu.—diseases (arising from external causes). 31.
Sarvaroga Sannya cikits—(gcneral trentent for all diseases) :—

Avoidance of improper rctivites (of the body, mind and speech by willful trarsgreion of rules), control of the senses, remembering previous expetiances (and acting rightly), good knowkdge of the land (Iabitat). tin e (season, age) and the

self (and their importance to health), adherence to rules of good (moral) conduct, coiiduc of propithiry rites as prescribed in the Atharva veda, worshipping ol’ nialevalent planets, not touching (not coming in cOntact directly) the bhutas (evil spirits, bacteria; insects and other creatuies)—these are in brief enumerated heie, as the plan (means, methods) to prevent the onset of diseases-both nija (organic) and ägañtu (trauniatic)—and also for the cuie ( oi relief) of those (diseases) which have already arisen.

The accumilation of doas arising from cold (season) should be expelled out during vasanta (sprig); that arising from grima (su mer) should be expeUed during abhrakäla (varsä. rainy season); that arising from vai (rainy season) be expelled during ghanatyaya (arad-, utumu) exlcditiously and effectively. By this, people will not become victims of diseases born (by the effect) of the seasons.
He, who indulges daily in healthy foods and activities, who descrirniiates (the good and bad of evezything and then acts wisely), who is not attached (too much) to the objects of the senses, who dcvelos the habit of charity, of considering all as equal (requiz ing kindness), of ti uthfulness, of pardoning and keeping company of good persons oniy, becomes free from all distases.
Thus ends the chapter called Rogãnutpadaniya, the fourth in Sütrastharia of AsangaIidaya sathhitã ofiimad Vagbhaa son of sri vaidyapati Simhagupta.

Saturday, February 21, 2009

Aedes aegypti







A. aegypti

Aedes aegypti, commonly known as the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can host the dengue fever, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses (and other diseases as well). One group of researchers recently proposed that A. aegypti be renamed Stegomyia aegypti , but this proposal has yet to be widely accepted by the scientific community. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings, although other mosquitos may have only slightly different patterns.[citation needed] The mosquito is most frequently found in the tropics ; it has some presence in the southeastern United States (such as the lower half of Florida), but it seems to have been competitively displaced by the introduction of Aedes albopictus

The genome of this species of mosquito was mapped, and published on 2007-05-17. The effort in mapping its DNA was intended to provide new avenues for research into insecticides and possible genetic modification to prevent the spread of disease. This was the second mosquito species to have its genome mapped in full. The first was Anopheles gambiae. The published data included the 1.38 billion base pairs containing the insect's estimated 15,419 protein encoding genes. The sequence indicates that the species diverged from Drosophila melanogaster (the common fruit fly) about 250 million years ago, and that Anopheles gambiae and this species diverged about 150 million years ago.[4][5]
Spread of disease and prevention
The CDC traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents that contain DEET (N, N-diethylmetatoluamide). It also explains the following:
1) Although it may feed at any time, the mosquito bites humans only between a few hours after dawn until an hour or so after sunset.
2) The mosquito's preferred breeding areas are in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels, buckets, and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet bowls, as they allow the mosquitos to breed right in the residence.

Indian Medicinal Plants ; Ayurveda
Ayurvedic treatments and Ayurveda Principles

Adhatoda vasica Nees

Adhatoda vasica Nees
Family: Acanthaceae

Vernacular names: Sanskrit - Vasa; Hindi - Arusha - Adulasa; English - Malabar nut; Unani - Arusa; Tamil - Adathodai; Bengali - Bakash

Part Used: leaves, root, flowers, stem bark
Ayurvedic Energetics: Rasa: bitter, astringentVeerya: coolingVipaka: pungent Gunas: light, drying
Doshas: KP- ; V+

Pharmacological Action: expectorant, antispasmodic, bronchodilatation, diuretic
Clinical Research: The leaves of the plant contain the alkaloid vasicine (C11H12N2O), which is responsible for the small but persistent bronchodilatation, and an essential oil which is chiefly responsible for the expectorant action. The leaves and roots contain other alkaloids, vasicinone, vasicinolone and vasicol, which may contribute to the bronchodilatory effect through anticholinergic action on the vagal innervation of the bronchii. The bronchodilation effect is considerably increased after atropine administration. Studies have also shown vasa to be effective in the treatment of amlapitta (dyspepsia) and pyorrhea . The in vitro growth of several strains of Mycoplasma tuberculosis was inhibited by the essential oil at concentrations in the range of 2-20 ug/ml. . There has also been a report of thrombopoetic (platelet-increasing) activity with vasicine.
Traditional Uses: The juice expressed from the leaves and thedecoction of the leaves and roots are useful in asthma, bronchitis, and other chronic coughs. Dried leaves are used in dhoomapana (smoking) in the treatment of bronchial asthma. The leaf decoction is an excellent expectorant when decocted with punarnava (Boerhaavia diffusa) and then combined with ginger juice and black pepper. Another effective preparation for the treatment of asthma is the decoction of vasa, guduci (Tinospora cordifolia), and kantakari (Solanum surratense) mixed with honey.Vasa has also been used to treat skin conditons by combining it with triphala and using the decoction both internally and externally. Vasa was also indicated in the treatment of internal hemmorhage; for this indication it was ususally decocted with haritaki, made into a ghrita, or taken alone as the leaf juice. A famous passage from the Harita Samhita states: "In the presence of Vasa why should those suffering from intrinsic hemmorhage, wasting, and cough be doubtful that there is hope for survival?".
Indications: asthma, brochitits, cough, local bleeding, thrombocytopenia, pyorrhea